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A continuous holocene record of ENSO variability in Southern Chile - A clue to a better understanding of interhemispheric climate teleconnections (ENSO-CHILI)

Research project EV/10 (Research action EV)


Persons :


Description :

A better understanding of past climate changes and interhemispheric teleconnections between climate processes requires continuous records of climate proxies from key areas of our planet. The aim of this project is to provide a new record from paleoprecipitation in the Chilean Lake District (SW South America) during the last 12000 years, in order to define the regional impact of "El Niño Southern Oscillation" (ENSO) and to evaluate possible teleconnections with the northern hemisphere, especially the North Atlantic area. Precipitation in the Lake District (39°- 41°S), is essentially controlled by westerlies, advecting humid polar air from the Pacific, and by the Andean topography. ENSO-events in the area are inducing positive precipitation anomalies, and should be recorded within the lakes as changes in terrigenous sedimentation, under the form of e.g. flood deposits. Special attention will be paid to millennium-timescale abrupt climate changes (like the "Little Ice Age") during the Holocene and on how they affect the ENSO-system, but also to pluri-decadal cyclicity (i.e. 50-60 yrs) overprints on ENSO-intensities, as recent studies highlight their possible global impact through thermo-haline circulation anomalies.

This proposal is based on a multidisciplinary analysis of four long sediment cores from two selected lakes in the Lake District. A first reconnaissance of the lacustrine infills will be done by high-resolution reflection seismic profiling in the 17 lakes. The two most interesting lakes will subsequently be mapped in detail, which will help to select two coring sites in each lake, one in a proximal and one in a distal depositionnal setting. Field work around these lakes will allow to define the sediment source characteristics and mineralogies, the present-day vegetation and the geomorphology of the drainage basins. Surface sediment sampling in the lakes will give an insight in the spatial variability in present-day terrigeneous sediment supply and dispersion. Multi-disciplinary analysis of the cores will include: physical properties, sedimentary structures, mineralogy, age dating, tephrochronology and pollen studies. The chronology will be established by 210Pb, 137Cs and 14C dating, as well as by correlation of sedimentary events with historical records since 1575 AD (human impacts, floods, fires, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions), and similar pre-historical events. The most appropriate sedimentary proxy for precipitation (clay minerals, grain size, lamination, magnetic susceptibility,...) will be carefully selected after a first analysis of the core. The final result will thus be a well-dated, high-resolution, multi-proxy record of Holocene variations in terrigeneous sediment supply. This record will be integrated with a pollen record of the vegetation changes, the tephrostratigraphy and the regional seismic-stratigraphy, in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes that affected the lakes and their drainage basins, in terms of precipitation and temperature variations.

Robust linear and evolutive spectral analysis techniques, as well as recent statistical tools, will be used to analyse the multi-proxy record variability, and to highlight the ENSO-cyclicities and the occurrence of decadal to millennium-scale climate variations. The results of the spectral analysis and the paleoenvironmental recontructions will be compared and confronted with various 2-D and 3-D climate models, in order to recognise possible interhemispheric teleconnections, as well as the evolution of climate response to natural and/or antropogenic perturbations.


Methodology

The project is based on a multidisciplinary analysis of long sediment cores from two selected lakes in the Lake District. A detailed reconnaissance will allow to select the most suitable lakes and to locate in these lakes the most appropriate sites for coring. Fieldwork around the lakes will allow defining the sediment source characteristics, the present-day vegetation and the geomorphology of the drainage basins. Multi-disciplinary analysis of the cores will include physical properties, sedimentary structures, mineralogy, age dating, tephrochronology and pollen studies. The final result will be a well-dated, high-resolution, multi-proxy record of paleo-environmental and/or paleoclimate changes that affected the lakes and their drainage basins, and this in terms of precipitation and temperature variations. Special analysis techniques will be applied to analyse the variability of this multi-proxy record, and to highlight the ENSO-cyclicities and the occurrence of decadal to millennium-scale climate variations. The results will be confronted with existing climate models, in order to recognise possible long-distance interactions, as well as the evolution of climate responses to natural and/or anthropogenic perturbations.


Interaction between the different partners

The project tasks will be executed jointly by the three project partners, in close concert with the main sub-contractors and the Chilean collaborators.


Expected results

The expected outcome of the project will be a well-dated, high-resolution, multi-proxy record of variations in precipitation and temperature in southern Chile during the last 10000 years,and of the effects and evolution of the ENSO-system during this time period. Such a record will be instrumental in improving our knowledge of the natural cyclicities of a number of basic components of the World climate system and on how and how fast specific climate changes may have a global impact. As such, the project may produce results that are useful for outlining the climatic boundary conditions to be taken into account by future policies on sustainable development.


Link with international programmes

- The project fits the objectives of Focus 1 ("Global Paleoclimate and Environmental Variability") of IGBP's Core Project PAGES. It aims to study the past climate variability (Timestream 1: Holocene with special emphasis on the last 2000 yr.) in a site along the PEP-1 (Pole-Equator-Pole) transect of the Americas.
- The project also corresponds to the themes defined in Key Action 2 "Global change, climate and biodiversity" of the "Energy, Environment & Sustainable Development" Programme of EC DG-XII.
- To a certain extent, the project will also answer to some of the objectives of WCRP's CLIVAR-DecCen Component Program aimed at "...describing and understanding the patterns of global decadal-to-centennial climate variability in the instrumental, paleo-climatic, and model records...".


Partners

Activities

Universiteit Gent, Renard Centre of Marine Geology (RUG)
RUG will be involved with the reconnaissance of the study area, with the regional study of the different lakes, with the actual sediment coring (subcontract to Université de Savoie) and with the development of an age model for the different cores.

Université de Liège, Département de Géologie (ULg)
Three laboratories of ULg will closely collaborate in the multidisciplinary analysis of the sediment cores (sedimentary structures, mineralogy, dating, tephrochronology and pollen-analysis) and of the characteristics of the drainage basin.

Université de Louvain la Neuve, Institut d'Astronomie et de Géophysique Georges Lemaître (UCL)
UCL will focus on the mathematical analysis of the sedimentary signal and on the climate modelling.


Coordinates/Details

Project co-ordinator

Marc De Batist
Universiteit Gent (RUG)
Renard Centre of Marine Geology
Krijgslaan 281, s-8
B-9000 Gent
Tel: +32 (0)9 264 45 87; Fax: +32 (0)9 264 49 67
marc.debatist@rug.ac.be
http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~jphenrie/

Partners:

Nathalie Fagel
Université de Liège (ULg)
Département de Géologie - Laboratory of General Geology, - Siliciclastic Sedimentology and Clay Crystalogenesis
Sart-Tilman B18
B-4000 Liège
Tel: +32 (0)4 366 22 09; Fax: +32 (0)4 366 22 02
nathalie.fagel@ulg.ac.be

Andre Berger
Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL)
Institut d'Astronomie et de Géophysique Georges Lemaître
2, Chemin du Cyclotron
B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve
Tel: +32 (0)10 47 33 03; Fax: +32 (0)10 47 47 22
berger@astr.ucl.ac.be
http://www.astr.ucl.ac.be/


Users Committee

An external Users Committee has been established, composed of scientists involved in related research projects, or involved in national or international scientific or policy-supporting programmes:

- Jean-Claude Thouret - Université Blaise Pascal - Laboratoire "Magmas et Volcans" - Clermont-Ferrand, France

- Florence Sylvestre - Université d'Angers - Laboratoire de Bio-Géologie - Angers, France

- Flavio Anselmetti - ETH - Limnogeology Laboratory - Zürich, Switzerland

- Françoise Gasse - PAGES - Leader of PEP III project

- Luc Hens - Federal Council for Sustainable Development - Brussels, Belgium


Documentation :

A continuous holocene record of ENSO variability in southern Chile (ENSO-CHILE) : final report  De Batist, M. - Fagel, N. - Loutre, M.F. ... et al  Brussels : Belgian Science Policy, 2007 (SP1854)
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Bibliografic references :

A 17,900 year multi-proxy lacustrine record of Lago Puyehue (Chilean Lake District): Introduction.   De Batist, M., Fagel, N., Loutre, M.F. & Chapron, E. Journal of Paleolimnology, in press 

A Holocene record of ENSO changes in lacustrine sediments from Meridional Chile (38-40°S)  Fagel, N., De Batist, M., Chapron, E., Juvigné, E., Pino, M., Urrutia, R., Loutre, M.F. & ENSO-CHILE Team International Union of Quaternary Research (INQUA) Congress, Reno, USA, 2003 

Changes in diatom assemblages in an Andean lake in response to a recent volcanic event  Cruces, F., Urrutia, R., Parra, O., Araneda, A., Treulter, H., Bertrand, S., Fagel, N., Torres, L., Barra, R. & Chirinos, L. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 165, 2006 

Changes in diatoms, pollen and chironomid assemblages as response to a recent volcanic event in Lake Galletue (Chilean Andes)  Urrutia, R., Araneda, A., Cruces, F., Torres, L., Chirinos, L., Treutler, H.-C., Fagel, N., Bertrand, S., Alvial, I., Barra, R. & Chapron, E. Limnologica, 2006 

Characterization of the sedimentary environments in Lago Puyehue and Lago Icalma (Chilean Lake District, SW Andes)  Charlet, F., Bertrand, S., Fagel, N. & De Batist, M. 3rd International Limnogeology Congress (ILIC 3), Tucson AZ, USA, 2003 

Chemical profiles in lake sediments in Laguna Chica de San Pedro (Bio-bio region, Chile)  Chirinos, L., Urrutia, R., Fagel, N., Bertrand, S., Gamboa, N., Araneda, A. & Zaror, C. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society 50, 2005 

Climate oscillations evidenced by spectral analysis of Southern Chilean lacustrine sediments: the assessment of ENSO over the last 600 years.  Fagel, N., Boës, X. & Loutre M.F.  Journal of Paleolimnology, in press 

Climate reconstruction from annually laminated sediments of Puyehue Lake  Boës, X., Charlet, F. & Fagel, N. The Last deglaciation time-window, in press 

Climate signal record and varve chronology in Puyehue Lake (Lake District, Southern Chile)  Boës, X. & Fagel, N. Proceedings Belqua workshop for young researchers, Tervuren, Belgique, in press 

Climate variability of southern Chile since the Last Glacial Maximum: a continuous sedimentological record from Lago Puyehue (40°S)  Bertrand, S., Charlet, F., Charlier, B., Renson, V. & Fagel, N. Journal of Paleolimnology, in press 

Climate variability of Southern Chile since the Late Glacial: a continuous paleoproductivity record of Puyehue Lake  Bertrand, S., Charlier, B., Lepoint, G., Charlet, F., Renson, V. & Fagel, N. , in press 

Dating of events in lake sediments by varve couting: application on Puyehue Lake, meridional Chile  Boës, X. & Fagel, N. Proceedings 8th international conference "Methods of absolute chronology", Ustron, Pologne, in press 

Dépôts événementiels holocènes enregistrés dans les sédiments du lac Icalma (Chili méridional)  Bertrand, S., Charlet, F., Renson, V., Chapron, E., Fagel, N. & De Batist, M. Proceedings 9ème congrès de l’Association des Sédimentologistes Français (ASF), Bordeaux, 2003 

First geochemical and lead istotopes results from Chilean Lake District peat bogs (Southern Chile)  De Vleeschouwer, F., Ibanez, M., Mattielli N. & Fagel, N. 6th International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2003 

Geochemical and Pb isotopic investigations in peat bogs from Lake District area (Southern Chile)  De Vleeschouwer, F., Ibanez, M., Mattielli N., Maerschalk, C. & Fagel, N. Goldschmidt Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004 

Geodynamic and climatic signals in the sedimentary infill of four lakes in the Chilean Lake District (37-42°S) revealed by seismic-stratigraphy  Charlet, F., Chapron, E., Marchand, C., Pino, M., Urrutia, R. & De Batist, M. , 2004 

Geophysical characterisation of the sedimentary environments in LagPuyehue and lagIcalma (Chilean Lake District, SW Andes)  Charlet, F., Bertrand, S., Chapron, E., Fagel, N. & De Batist, M. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, 2003 

Geophysical reconstruction of the sedimentary infill of LagIcalma (39°S, Chilean Lake District) since the last deglaciation,Geosur, Buenos Aires, Argentina.   Charlet, F., Marchand, C., Bertrand, S., Chapron, E., Pino, M., Urrutia, R. & De Batist, M. Geophysical Research Abstracts 5, 2004 

Giant earthquakes in South-Central Chile revealed by Holocene mass-wasting events in Lake Puyehue  Moernaut, J., De Batist, M., Charlet, F., Heirman, K., Chapron, E., Pino, M., Brümmer, R. & Urrutia, R. Sedimentary Geology, 2004 

High resolution sedimentological studies of Holocene lacustrine series, search for annual climatic proxies and inter-hemispheric comparison (example of Lake Baikal, Siberia, 50°N and Lake District, Chile, 40°S),  Boës, X.  thesis, 146 p. University of Liege, Belgium, 2005 

Historical record  CHAPRON M. ET AL , 2005 

Holocene sedimentation in Icalma and Puyehue lakes (Southern Chile): Instantaneous versus continuous records.  Bertrand, S., Charlet, F., Renson, V., Boës, X., Arnaud, F., Lignier, V., Chapron, E., Beck, C., Fagel, N. & De Batist, M 10° Congreso Geológico Chileno, Concepcion, Chile, 2003 

Impact of the 1960 major subduction earthquake in Northern Patagonia (Chile, Argentina)  Chapron, E., Ariztegui, D., Mulsow, S., Villarosa, G., Pino, M., Outes, V., Juvignié, E. & Crivelli, E. Quaternary International, 2003 

Impregnation method for detecting annual laminations in sediment cores: An overview  Boës, X. & Fagel, N. Sedimentary Geology 179, 2005 

Incipient axial collapse of the Main Cordillera and strain partitioning gradient between the Central and Patagonian Andes, Lago Laja, Chile  Melnick, D., Charlet, F., Echtler, H. & De Batist, M. Tectonics, 2005 

Late Quaternary climatic changes in southern Chile, as recorded in a diatom sequence of Lago Puyehue (40°40’S)  Sterken, M., Verleyen, E., Sabbe, K., Terryn, G., Charlet, F., Bertrand, S., Boës, X., Fagel, N., De Batist, M. & Vyverman, W. Journal of Paleolimnology, 2005 

Mineral chemistry of Llaïma Pumice, Southern Chile: Evidence of magma mixing  De Vleeschouwer, F., Juvigné, E., Renson, V. & Naranjo, J.A. Geologica Belgica 8, 2005 

Multidisciplinary study of Holocene sedimentation in lakes Icalma and Puyehue (Chilean lake district , SW Andes): First results and implications for climate variability reconstructions  De Batist, M., Chapron, E., Fagel, N., Pino, M., Urrutia, R., Charlet, F., Brümmer, R. San Martin, W., Mora, A., De Rycker, K., Bertrand, S., Boës, X., Vargas, L., Beck, C., Arnaud, F., Lignier, V., De Vleeschouwer, F., Magand, O., Loutre, M.F., Renson, V 3rd International Limnogeology Congress (ILIC 3), Tucson AZ, USA, 2003 

Multidisciplinary study of Holocene sedimentation in lakes Icalma and puyehue (Chilean lake district, SW Andes)  De Batist, M., Chapron, E., Fagel, N., Pino, M., Urrutia, R., Loutre, M.F. & the ENSO-Chile team EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, 2003 

New evidences for volcanic origin of Trumaos parental material in the Lake District, Chile, 40°S  Bertrand, S. & Fagel, N. Revista Geologica de Chile, 2003 

Paleoproductivity of Puyehue Lake (Southern Chile) during the last millenium: climatic significance.  Bertrand, S, Charlet, F., Urrutia, R., Espinoza, C., Charlier, B., Renson, V. De Batist, M. & Fagel, N. EGS-EUG-AGU Joint assembly, Nice, France, 2004 

Pollen-based record of Lateglacial-Holocene climatic variability in southern Lake District, Chile  Vargas, L., Roche, E., Gerrienne, Ph. & Hooghiemstra, H. Journal of Paleolimnology, in press 

Radionuclide dating (210Pb, 137Cs, 241Am) of recent lake sediments in a highly active geodynamic setting (Lakes Puyehue and Icalma,Chilean Lake District).  Arnaud, F., Magand, O., Chapron, E., Bertrand, S., Boës, X., Charlet, F. & Mélières, M.-A. Science of the Total Environment 366(2-3) , 2005 

Reconstruction of the Holocene seismotectonic activity of the Southern Andes from seismites recorded in Lago Icalma, Chile, 39°S  Bertrand, S., Charlet, F., Fagel, N. & De Batist, M. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2005 

Reflection-seismic study of six lakes in South-Central Chile (37°S-42°S): Lagos Laja, Lleulleu, Icalma, Villarrica, Puyehue & Todos Los Santos  Charlet, F., Marchand, C., Volland, S., Pino, M., Urrutia, R., Muller, J., Chapron, E. & De Batist, M. 10° Congreso Geológico Chileno, Concepcion, Chile, 2003 

Relationships between southern Chilean varved lake sediments, precipitation and ENSO for the last 600 years  Boës, X. & Fagel, N. Journal of Paleolimnology, in press 

Research for continuous palaeoclimate record of ENSO in Southern Chile (Lake District)  Boës, X., Juvigné, E. & Fagel, N. International Union of Quaternary Research (INQUA) Congress, Reno, USA, 2003 

Search for continuous paleoclimatic record in Holocene lacustrine sediments from Lake District Chile 40°S.  Bertrand, S. & Fagel, N. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, 2003 

Sedimentary processes in Lake Puyehue over the last 500 years: implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the Chilean Lake District (41°S)  Chapron, E., Bertrand, S., Charlet, F., Boës, X., De Batist, M., Fagel, N., Magand, O., Arnaud, F., Mélières, M.A., Pino, M. & Urrutia, R. Bolletino di Geofisica, 45(2) supp., 2004 

Seismic stratigraphy of Lago Puyehue (Chilean Lake District): new views on its deglacial and Holocene evolution  Charlet, F., De Batist, M., Chapron, E., Bertrand, S., Pino, M. & Urrutia, R. Journal of Paleolimnology, 2004 

Seismic-stratigraphy of Lake Puyehue  CHARLET F. ET AL , 2004 

Seismo-tectonic activity record in the Holocene sedimentary infilling of Icalma lake (Southern Chile)  Bertrand, S., Charlet, F., Chapron, E., De Batist, M. & Fagel, N. , 2004 

Spectral analysis of multiproxies on Puyehue sedimentary record for the last deglaciation  Loutre, M.F. , Boës, X & Fagel, N. , 2004 

Temporal evolution of sediment supply in Lago Puyehue (Southern Chile) during the last 600 years: climatic significance  Bertrand, S., Castiaux, J., Boës, X., Charlet, F., Urrutia, R., Espinoza, C., Lepoint, G., Charlier, B. & Fagel, N. Quaternary Research 64(2), 2005 

Tephrostratigraphy in Holocene and Last termination sedimentary record of Puyehue Lake, Southern Lake District, Chile  Juvigné, E., Boës, X., Castiaux, J. & Bertrand, S. Dahlem Workshop Report 96. Cambridge, USA, 2005 

The Lagdel Laja Fault System : Active intra-arc collapse in the Southern Central Andes (37°15´S)  Melnick, D., Folguera, A., Echtler, H., Charlet, F., Büttner, O., Chapron, E. & De Batist, M 10° Congreso Geológico Chileno, Concepcion, Chile, 2003 

The Sonic team and M. De Batist. High-resolution geophysical investigation of the sedimentary environments on elevated plateaus in Lake Baikal (Siberia)  CHARLET F., MINNEBO B., HAUREGARD F., FAGEL N. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, 2003 

Thickness variation of sediment lamination in Puyehue Lake (Lake District, Southern Chile) during the last millenium : a regional record of El Nino ?  Boës, X., Arnaud, F., Magand, O., De Batist, M. & Fagel, N. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France, 2004 

Timing of Late Glacial and Younger Dryas cool reversal in southern Chile varved sediments  Boës, X. & Fagel, N. Journal of Paleolimnology, in press 

Use and limits of paleoclimatological proxies in lacustrine sediments: The case study of the volcanically active Lake District area (Southern Chile) Punta Arenas, Chile  Bertrand, S. & Fagel, N. , 2003 

Variability of sub-fossil chironomid assemblages associated with volcanic sediment deposition in an Andean lake, Chile  Araneda, A., Cruces, F., Torres, L., Bertrand, S., Fagel, N., Treutler, H.C., Chirinos, L., Barra, R. & Urrutia, R. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 2003 

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