Research project EV/22 (Research action ev)
There is growing concern about the potential of various chemicals to produce changes in the functioning of the endocrine system of humans and animals. Known natural hormones as well as relatively unknown environmental pollutants seem to have the ability to potentially disrupt the endocrine system of man and animal in such a way that harmful effects on their development and reproduction can occur.
The first indications of possible effects of endocrine disrupting substances and the presence of these substances in the Scheldt estuary have recently been published. The industrial areas of Ghent and Antwerp are to a large extent responsible for this pollution. Therefore, there is an obvious need to investigate the occurrence of endocrine disruption in the Scheldt estuary. In addition, a detailed knowledge of the distribution and long-term effects of these substances is needed in the framework of future-oriented policy measures at the national and European level.
Description of the project
The major objectives within the project are:
- analyses of endocrine disrupters in water, suspended solids, sediment and biota (mysids, gobies);
- in vitro evaluation of the estrogenic and androgenic potency of samples of water, suspended solids and sediment;
- ecotoxicological and in situ evaluation of the effects on the resident mysid populations (short, intermediate and long-term);
- risk assessment of endocrine disrupters in the Scheldt estuary.
The proposed project can be divided into four different research phases:
Phase I: Distribution of endocrine disrupting substances in the Scheldt estuary (chemical analyses, analyses on biota, in vitro analyses)
The Scheldt estuary will be sampled three times a year (spring, summer and winter) for the duration of the project. On each sampling date, sediment, water, suspended solid and biota (mysid shrimp and gobies) will be collected. An extended list of natural hormones and endocrine disrupting chemicals will be measured in these samples.
The different water, sediment and suspended solid extracts will be tested in vitro to assess their potential to bind with the (human) estrogen and androgen receptor. The results of these analyses will allow an identification of the estrogenic and androgenic potency in different environmental matrices of the Scheldt estuary.
Phase II: Evaluation of the exposure of biota from the Scheldt estuary to endocrine disrupting substances
Based on the results of the first sampling campaigns priority substances will be selected. These priority endocrine-disrupting chemicals will be used in laboratory experiments with mysid shrimp to assess acute and chronic effects (Phase III).
Phase III: Ecotoxicological evaluation of the effects of endocrine disrupting substances occurring in the Scheldt estuary on resident mysid shrimp populations (laboratory and field studies)
Acute and chronic laboratory tests with mysid shrimps
To evaluate the possible effects of the pollutants (retained in phase II) on mysid shrimp, acute and chronic test will be performed in the laboratory. Mysid shrimp will also be exposed in multi-generation experiments during two generations (until the first generation of juveniles produces juveniles again) to assess the effects of endocrine disrupters during prolonged exposure.
Population study of the native mysid shrimp in the Scheldt estuary
The mysid shrimp population of the Scheldt estuary will be sampled and studied during one year. In this way, the present population dynamics can be compared with the available historical data and possible changes can be detected. In addition, a more in-depth field study on the possible endocrine disruption effects will be conducted based on the results of the laboratory toxicity experiments. Sensitive endpoints identified in the laboratory experiments will be validated in situ on the resident mysid shrimp population in the Scheldt estuary.
Phase IV: Risk assessment
In the last phase, the results of the previous phases will be incorporated into an integrated risk assessment for the Scheldt estuary with reference to endocrine disrupting substances. Moreover, an overall risk assessment for the Scheldt estuary will be conducted with these data in correlation with environmental concentrations of the tested endocrine disrupters. Recommendations for sustainable management and priority substances will be developed.
The results of this study on "endocrine disruption in the Scheldt estuary: distribution, exposure and effects" will be used at different levels and in different ways.
In order to ensure (rapid) dissemination and valorisation of the obtained results, the following actions will be undertaken:
- all results will be published in peer-reviewed journals;
- transfer (and discussion) of the obtained knowledge and insights to national and international representatives of policy-making and policy-supporting governmental services. This discussion will offer an essential contribution to the international contractual engagements of Belgium;
- diffusion of data and results through scientific databases;
- interactive communication forum during the project (project website);
- the results of the project will be brought together in a book, which will include the datasets on CD-rom and the main research results.
The diffusion and valorisation of the information as described above will be developed and maintained by the Flemish Institute for the Sea (VLIZ) (subcontracted) under supervision of the co-ordinator.
The Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology (LMAE) belongs to the inter-faculty research group Endocrine Modulator Research Gent (EMRGent) of the Ghent University. This group investigates different aspects (environment and human) of endocrine disrupting substances. The recognised experience of the LMAE is in the field of ecotoxicology and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting substances and metals.
The Marine Biology Section of the Ghent University is specialised in biological and ecological research in marine/estuarine ecosystems. This group has a long-standing and recognised expertise in the various research aspects of mysid shrimps in European estuaries, in particular the Scheldt estuary.
The Laboratorium of Chemical Analysis of the Ghent University has an internationally recognised expertise, experience and technology for the identification, quantification and purification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (especially hormones).
MUMM has a crucial role in the preparation, performance and visualisation of the governmental policy concerning the marine environment. In addition, their laboratory is a recognised expertise centre for the analysis of micro-pollutants.
RIKZ has, in the Netherlands and in Europe, a central role in the research of endocrine disrupting substances in the marine environment. This institute recently performed (together with RIZA) the LOES-project (Research to the presence of estrogen-active substances in aquatic systems and wastewater in the Netherlands) and performs important policy supporting research on the Scheldt estuary.
Universiteit Gent (RUG)
Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology
Jozef Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent
Tel: +32(0)9 264 37 75; Fax: +32(0)9 264 37 66
Universiteit Gent (RUG)
Department Biology - Marine Biology Section
Krijgslaan 281, S8, B-9000 Ghent
Tel: +32(0)9 264 52 10; Fax: +32(0) 9 264 53 44
Hubert De Brabander
Universiteit Gent (RUG)
Laboratorium of Chemical Analysis
Salisburylaan 133, B-920 Merelbeke
Tel: +32(0)9 264 74 60; Fax: +32(0)9 264 74 92
MUMM - Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models
3de en 23ste Linieregimentsplein, B-8400 Ostend
Tel: +32 (0)59 24 20 54; Fax: +32 (0)59 70 49 35
Ministry of Transport - Public Works and Water Management - Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management
National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ) - Fieldstation Jacobahaven
Jacobaweg 2, NL-4493 MX Kamperland
Tel: +31 (0)118 371 651; Fax: +31 (0)118 372 855
F. Van den Noortgaete - Flemish Environmental Agency (VMM)
H. Belmans - Ministry of the Flemish Community - Department Environment and
Infrastructure - Administration Sea and Watercoarses (AWZ) - Maritime Scheldt
P. Meire - Antwerp University (UA) - Department Biology
E. Van den Bergh - Institute for Nature Conservation (IN)
F. Maes - Ghent University - Maritime Institute - Department Environment, Quality,
Technology and Food
G. Van Eck - Scheldt Information Centre
P. Herman - Dutch Institute for Ecological Research - Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology (CEMO)
L. Harpe - Ministry of Transport - Public Works and Water Management - Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management - Directorate Zeeland
Endocrine disruption in the Scheldt estuary distribution. Exposure and effects (ENDIS-RISKS) : final report
Janssen, C. - Ghekiere, A. - Verslycke, T. ... et al Brussels : Belgian Science Policy, 2008 (SP1857)
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Bibliografic references :
Cellular energy allocation and scope for growth in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following chlorpyrifos exposure: a method comparison. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (in press).. (2003). Flame retardants, surfactants and organotins in sediment and mysid shrimp of the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands). Environmental Pollution (submitted)
VERSLYCKE, T., ROAST, S.D., WIDDOWS, J., JONES, M.B. and JANSSEN C.R.,VERSLYCKE, T., VETHAAK, A.D., ARIJS, K. & JANSSEN, C.R , 2003
Cellular energy allocation in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure
VERSLYCKE, T., VERCAUTEREN, J., DEVOS, C. MOENS, L., SANDRA, P. & JANSSEN, C. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 288(2, 2003
Mysids as potential test organisms for the evaluation of environmental endocrine disruption: a review
VERSLYCKE, T., FOCKEDEY, N., MCKENNEY, C.L.Jr., ROAST, S.D., JONES, M.B., MEES, J. & JANSSEN, C.R. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23 (5) (in press), 2004
Polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments from the southern North Sea : patterns, concentration, normalisation and trends
ROOSE, P., F. SMEDES, M. RAEMAEKERS, K. COOREMAN and U.Th. BRINKMAN Tbe submitted, 2003
Purification and characterization of vitellin from the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea)
GHEKIERE, A., VERSLYCKE, T., DE SMET, L., VAN BEEUMEN, J. & JANSSEN, C.R. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (accepted, 2004
Seasonal and spatial pattern in energy allocation in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) of the Scheldt estuary
VERSLYCKE, T., GHEKIERE, A. & JANSSEN, C. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (in press), 2004
Testosterone and energy metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following exposure tendocrine disruptors
VERSLYCKE, T., POELMANS, S., DE WASCH, K., DE BRABANDER, H.F. & JANSSEN, C.R Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (accepted), 2004
The testosterone metabolism of the estuarine invertebrate Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following TBTCl exposure
VERSLYCKE, T., POELMANS, S., DE WASCH, K., VERCAUTEREN, J., DEVOS, C., MOENS, L., SANDRA, P., DE BRABANDER, H.F. & JANSSEN, C Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 2003