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Biofuels Sustainable End uSe (BIOSES) (PHASE II)

Research project SD/EN/03B (Research action SD)

Persons :

  • Dr.  PELKMANS Luc - Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO)
    Coordinator of the project
    Financed belgian partner
    Duration: 15/12/2008-31/1/2011
  • M.  LEDENT Jean-François - Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL)
    Financed belgian partner
    Duration: 15/12/2008-31/1/2011
  •   JOSSART Jean-Marc - Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL)
    Financed belgian partner
    Duration: 15/12/2008-31/1/2011
  • Dhr.  VAN MIERLO Joeri - Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
    Financed belgian partner
    Duration: 15/12/2008-31/1/2011
  • Prof. dr.  DE RUYCK Jacques - Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
    Financed belgian partner
    Duration: 15/12/2008-31/1/2011
  • Mevr.  MACHARIS Cathy - Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
    Financed belgian partner
    Duration: 15/12/2008-31/1/2011

Description :


The transport sector has a serious impact on the environment because of greenhouse gas emissions and other vehicle emissions. Besides the emission problem, the energy consumption in transport creates a problem of energy dependency as it relies almost completely on petroleum. One of the action points of the European Commission in this frame is to introduce biofuels in transport (see directive 2003/30/EC). Belgium has set a target to reach 5.75% biofuels in 2010. Different scenarios are possible to reach this.
The use of biofuels in the transport sector should happen in a sustainable way that balances the main transport related challenges of greenhouse gas reduction, reducing oil dependency and improving air quality.

Project description


The BIOSES project analyses the impact of different market introduction scenarios of biofuels in the Belgian transport system, with the focus on the end user perspective (demand side). Time horizon for the analyses goes from short term (2010) over medium term (2020) up to long term (2030).
Based on up-to-date data (complemented with own measurements) of energy use, emissions and cost, the project will look into the practical feasibility and the ecological, socio-economic and macro-economic impact of the introduction of biofuels in Belgium. The project will use the results to create a roadmap for the introduction of liquid biofuels in Belgium, with the emphasis on the demand side (end users), identifying technical and policy needs on short, medium and long term.


The analysis will be done through:

- developing scenarios for fossil fuel and biofuel demand on short, mid and long term, aggregated and differentiated for different user/vehicle/fuel combinations. These scenarios will be discussed in stakeholder meetings;
- analysing the impact of the scenarios from a user perspective: analysis of energy use and emissions related to the introduction of biofuels, both from WTT as TTW perspective. TTW energy use and emissions will be quantified from literature, complemented by measurements in real traffic circumstances;
- analysing the total energy and environmental impact of the different biofuel vehicles and compare them with conventional and other alternative vehicle technologies on a well-to-wheel basis. Three indicators will be developed: Ecoscore, global warming and energy consumption.
- analysing the socio-economic feasibility of the introduction of the biofuel scenarios, possible barriers and develop implementation pathways for the introduction, including different policy instruments; this will lead to a biofuel roadmap for the Belgian situation;
- analysing the impact of the scenarios on the Belgian transport system as a whole. This includes a system analysis, macro-economic analysis and quantifying the effect of scenarios on total emissions related to transport in Belgium.
- drawing up recommendation documents, which will be disseminated through workshops towards policy makers and end users.

Interaction between the different partners

The three partners in the project all contribute to most tasks and will therefore cooperate intensively. For each task though there is one responsible partner.
VITO coordinates the project and will focus on data collection of vehicle emissions (including measurements), developing scenarios for relevant sectors and calculating the impact of these scenarios to emission prognoses on country level. The policy recommendations and dissemination are VITO’s responsibility though the other partners will give important input.
For VUB three departments are involved. The group ETEC will predominantly work on technology assessment on vehicle level (EcoScore), global warming and energy efficiency. The MECH department will focus on data collection of well-to-tank emissions (fuel production) and will further elaborate a system analysis tool (SPA). The group MOSI will focus on macro-economic analyses based on the SPA calculations.
UCL will focus on the socio-economic feasibility for end users, including an analysis of the cost per biofuel, and look into possible barriers and implementation pathways in preparation of a biofuel roadmap for Belgium.

Expected results and/or products

- Possible scenarios for the introduction of biofuels, directed towards different groups/sectors of end users,
- listing of typical WTT emissions per biofuel chain,
- listing of emission data of vehicles using biofuels (or blends), including results of dedicated emission measurements on new types of vehicles,
- extended EcoScore database with biofuel options,
- overview of well-to-wheel impact and EcoScore for different biofuels-vehicle combinations towards greenhouse gases, other emissions and energy use,
- further extension of the SPA model (system perturbation analysis) and calculations on Belgian level,
- macro-economic impact and emission prognoses of different biofuel introduction scenarios,
- socio-economic feasibility of the use of biofuels by different end user groups / sectors, including a cost overview per biofuel, possible barriers and possible implementation pathways.
- 2 public reports for end users (1st after 2 years, 2nd after 4 years) on the implications of biofuels for end users on economic, technical, social and environmental level.
- 2 public reports for policy makers (1st after 2 years, 2nd after 4 years) on possible scenarios and a possible roadmap for the implementation of biofuels in Belgium.

Dedicated workshops will be organized for end users (2) and policy makers (2) to present and discuss the project outcomes and advice. The results will also be presented on other for a (e.g. conferences, journals). The public documents will be made available on the project website, which will also be used for the stakeholder consultations.



• energy use and environmental impact on vehicle level.
• market introduction of new vehicle technologies and alternative motor fuels.
• evaluation models (incl. scenarios) for policies in relation to sustainable development.

• innovative and environmentally friendly vehicle technologies, with focus on electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles, and components such as electric drives and batteries.
• Environmental assessment (EcoScore)
• production of thermal and electric energy
• several energy policy activities, biomass in particular
• evaluation methods in the human sciences, in particular for social and economical decision problems. Focus on transport and logistics, sustainable mobility, multi-criteria analysis and location analysis.

• implementation of bio-energy routes, like technical matters, environmental aspects and micro-economic issues.

Contact Information


Luc Pelkmans
VITO – Flemish Institute for Technological Research
Centre of expertise Energy Technology (ETE)
Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol
Tel: +32 (0)14 33 58 30
Fax: +32 (0)14 32 11 85


Joeri Van Mierlo
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
Faculty of Applied Sciences, dept. Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology (ETEC)
Pleinlaan 2
B-1050 Brussels
Tel: +32 (0)2 629 28 04
Fax +32 (0)2 629 36 20

Jacques De Ruyck
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
Faculty of Applied Sciences, dept. Mechanical Engineering (MECH)
Pleinlaan 2
B-1050 Brussels
Tel: +32 (0)2 629 23 93
Fax: +32(0)2 629 28 65

Cathy Macharis
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
Faculty of Economic, Social and Political Sciences and Solvay Business School, dept. MOSI
Pleinlaan 2
B-1050 Brussels
Tel:+32 (0)2 629 22 86
Fax +32 (0)2 629 21 86

Jean-Marc Jossart
UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain
Unité d'écophysiologie et amélioration végétale (ECAV)
Croix du Sud 2, bte 11, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve
Tel: +32 (0)10 47 38 18
Fax +32 (0)10 47 34 55

Follow-up committee

Philippe Bausier - Raffinerie Tirlemontoise
Leen Buekers - FEBETRA
Veerle Campens - Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap
Stéphane Cools - Ministère de la Région Wallonne
Michel Degaillier - SPF Santé publique, Sécurité de la Chaîne alimentaire et Environnement
Geert Dooms - 3E nv
Jean-Paul Etienne - TEC
Olivier Gerard - Fédération Wallonne de l'Agriculture
Patrick Gérin - Université Catholique de Louvain
Olivier Marchal - SPF Mobilité et Transports
Michel Martens - Fédération Belge de l’Automobile et du cycle (FEBIAC)
Daniel Matthys - Alco Bio Fuel
Gabriel Michaux - SPF Economie, PME, Classes moyennes et Energie
Pol Michiels - Fédération Belge de l’Automobile et du cycle (FEBIAC)
Olivier Neirinck - BRAFCO
Jean-Louis Nizet - Fédération pétrolière belge (FPB)
Yves Schenkel - Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques
Wim Soetaert - Universiteit Gent
Lode Speleers - BIODIESEL Holding nv
Marianne Squilbin - Institut Bruxellois pour la Gestion de l'Environnement (IBGE)
Greet Van Laer - Vlaamse Overheid
Tania Van Mierlo - Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap
Freddy Van Steenberghe - De Lijn
Marc Vandenborre - SPF Finances
Caroline Vermeulen - Vlaams Energieagentschap
Bart Vleeschouwers - Boerenbond

Documentation :

Biofuels Sustainable End use : final report  Pelkmans, Luc - Van Mierlo, Joeri - De ruyck, Jacques ... et al  Brussels : Federal Science Policy, 2012 (SP2490)
[To download]  [To order

Duurzaam eindgebruik van biobrandstoffen : samenvatting van de resultaten  Pelkmans, Luc - Van Mierlo, Joeri - De ruyck, Jacques ... et al  Brussel : Federaal Wetenschapsbeleid, 2012 (SP2491)
[To download

Utilisation durable des biocarburants : résumé des résultats  Pelkmans, Luc - Van Mierlo, Joeri - De ruyck, Jacques ... et al  Bruxelles : Politique scientifique fédérale, 2012 (SP2492)
[To download

Biofuels Sustainable End uSe : summary of the results  Pelkmans, Luc - Van Mierlo, Joeri - De ruyck, Jacques ... et al  Brussels : Federal Science Policy, 2012 (SP2493)
[To download

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